Bottom-up management happens when employee input is used to shape objectives, initiatives, and tasks. Employees are asked to participate in goal setting—sometimes simply by providing comments, and sometimes by having a stake in the choice. Each team then communicates these goals, initiatives, and duties to top leadership. The idea is that this feedback will help inform decisions about how best to move forward.
In bottom-up management, leaders do not make all the decisions; they get input from those below them as well as themselves. This means employees have a voice in what projects get pursued and won't be told about plans that don't make sense to them. They also can expect to be called upon for their opinions on issues before them. Finally, leaders who employ this type of management approach would see themselves as facilitators of discussion and collaboration rather than arbiters of action.
Some examples of bottom-up leadership include Steve Jobs and Eric Schmidt. Both men allowed their companies to develop without him directly making key decisions about strategy or operations. Instead, they sought input from others within the company and then worked with their teams to come up with solutions to problems that were facing the organization.
Jobs' approach to management was highly personal. He would often call meetings of Apple's senior leadership to discuss issues before them. At these meetings, he would seek input on topics such as product development strategies or corporate marketing campaigns.
Top-down management happens when your company's top leaders decide on objectives, initiatives, and tasks independently of their staff. These objectives, initiatives, and tasks are subsequently shared with the rest of the organization. Pros. This managerial style is well-known among most employees. It allows for rapid decision making and action taking. Cons. This type of leadership can be difficult to implement effectively. Since executives are not involved in day-to-day activities, they may not know what's going on in their departments. They may also have difficulties communicating their vision to their teams.
In contrast, bottom-up management involves everyone in the organization working together toward a common goal. Employees feel like they have an impact on what goes on in their department or office. They also feel like they can communicate ideas about how to improve operations or processes. In other words, staff members are given freedom within reason, but they also understand that they need to work together to get things done. This type of leadership is effective because there is no hiding place for incompetence or failure. Everyone sees it, knows it, and feels it when something isn't right.
Which type of leadership is best for my business? That depends on you. If you want to keep executive decisions out of the daily affairs of your department or office, then top-down management will help you do that.
Team leaders determine the subtasks that the group must perform as it works toward its goals, and then allocate various members of the team to each subtask. Other leaders, on the other hand, influence their followers in more subtle and imperceptible ways. Some people lead by establishing a good example for others to follow. Others may use praise or criticism to encourage certain behaviors, while still others might provide direct assistance when needed. All effective leaders work to create a positive environment for their teams, allowing them to feel comfortable sharing ideas.
Social influences can be either positive or negative. Positive influences help someone decide to act in a particular way; for example, a friend's approval will make a child feel good about himself/herself. Negative influences cause someone to do something even though he/she would probably like not to; for example, a teacher's reprimand will make a student feel bad about himself/herself. Social influences are one of the main ways that leaders lead their groups or organizations. Leaders look at the situation they are faced with and then choose the path they think would be best for their team to take. If needed, they can also use other individuals or events as incentives or punishments to get their players to move in the direction they want them to go.
There are two types of social influences: direct and indirect. Direct social influences are those that are given openly and directly to another person.