Effective group counseling leaders realize that, in addition to preplanning, groups move through five stages: dependency, conflict, cohesiveness, interdependence, and termination. The stages are sometimes referred to as "forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning" (Tuckman & Jensen, 1977). However own your own personal experience, most groups do not reach termination until they have gone through at least four of the other five stages.
Groups at the first two stages are called "undeveloped." They typically include new groups that have not yet found their mission or purpose, as well as currently active groups that need more time to establish a strong foundation of trust before moving on to the next stage. Undeveloped groups may struggle with issues such as power differentials between members, how decisions are made, or how much control individuals want to give up toward the end of each session.
Groups at the third stage are called "developing." They are usually mature groups that have been working together for some time. Although there is still work to be done during this stage, members are generally more comfortable with one another and have learned how to best help each other grow. Developing groups may focus on issues like changing relationships within the group, feelings of isolation or inclusion, or problems with interpersonal communication.
Bruce Tuckman, a psychologist, stated in 1965 that teams go through five stages of development: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. The stages begin when a group first meets and terminate when the project is completed. Each is well titled and plays an important role in the formation of a well-functioning team.
These stages are not fixed and may occur in any order. For example, a team may initially form to decide what project they will take on and then proceed to storm their way to success.
However, it is common for groups to move from one stage to another as they work together. For example, if a group forms too quickly then they may be forced to work through all five stages simultaneously. This can be difficult because each stage requires the team to review its behavior and make changes where necessary so that better results can be achieved.
It is important for groups to remain focused on their goal during each stage of development so that they do not get distracted by side issues that may have arisen during early discussions about the project.
Groups may return to earlier stages if they find themselves facing problems related to a stage that they have not dealt with yet. For example, if a group finds itself in a conflict with another group or individual then it may need to reevaluate how it is working together before moving forward.
Stages of Group Development
Bruce Tuckman created one of the most widely used models, in which there are five constant stages of group development: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. The majority of organizations go through these stages. Sometimes groups fall out of phase for a while before returning to normal.
The group's first stage is called formation. It begins when people come together with the aim of solving a problem or accomplishing a goal. During this time, they explore issues that may arise and try to find a way forward. If they like each other and have some success, they may decide to continue meeting again later. If not, they might part ways without having resolved their difference of opinion.
In the group's second stage, called storming, members fight out their differences. They may call on outside help if necessary, but at its heart, this is a battle between people who want to claim ownership of the group's output. In many cases, someone will emerge as leader - usually someone who was already involved with the group and has influence over other members. They may have earned this position through past experience or because they are the only person willing to take charge during the crisis.
Once the fighting has died down, members can focus on moving the group forward. They might set some new goals or tasks and divide them up among themselves.
The five phases of therapy sessions include the introductory stage, the in-depth investigation stage, the commitment to action stage, the counseling intervention stage, and the termination or referral stage. These phases do not necessarily occur in this order every time, but they provide a framework for discussing what might happen during a session.
In the introductory phase, the therapist and client get to know each other well enough to begin to build a trusting relationship. The therapist wants to make sure that he or she is right for the client - whether because of skills needed or compatibility in terms of values. The client should feel safe with the therapist so that frank discussion can take place.
During the in-depth investigation stage, the therapist probes further into the issues that brought the client in for treatment. He or she may want to understand more about how the problems developed and the ways in which they affect the client's life. The therapist also looks for clues as to why the client came to him or her in the first place - was it an emergency situation? If not, then why now? Does the client have other options for help?
If the client says he or she is committed to changing certain behaviors or thinking patterns, then the therapist should discuss different strategies for achieving these goals.
Forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning are the five steps. These steps can be used to organize any type of project, but they are especially useful for grouping individuals together who have no previous contact with each other but who will need to work together on a common goal.
Group formation starts with deciding which groups or teams are needed and how they should be composed. For example, if there is a large number of participants who would like to take part in some activity but who don't know each other well, they might be assigned to different groups. The people participating in the group process then go through an adjustment period as they get to know each other and work together. This is called "storming" the group. During this time, members of the group will likely point out problems with the way things are being done and suggest ways to improve them. As they become more comfortable with each other, they should start to feel less need to storm the group.
Once the group has reached its maximum size, it's time to form new groups if necessary. This is because not all participants may have been given a group assignment. Group norms can also be discussed and agreed upon at this stage.
Tuckman's model specifies five stages of group development: forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Each of the five stages of team development symbolizes a rung on the ladder of team-building. Tuckman argued that groups at each stage of their evolution provide an opportunity for members to contribute.
Forming - the group forms in order to solve a problem or achieve a goal. This is a time when everyone is expected to put in their fair share of work and play. No one is given special status or allowed to avoid responsibility. During this phase, the team is still finding its identity and may have trouble communicating effectively with one another.
Storming - once it becomes clear that some people are going to be more responsible than others, power relations begin to form. During this stage, there is a rise in conflict as those who are less responsible try to assert themselves over those who are more responsible. The team starts to gel into distinct roles such as leader and follower. Roles are defined and negotiated during this stage.
Norming - as the group begins to operate as a unit, they start to reach decisions by consensus rather than voting. During this stage, the team starts to feel comfortable taking risks and making decisions on their own without worrying about what might happen if they make a mistake.