According to (1988), quality is a type of attitude that is connected but not the same as satisfaction, which is the consequence of a comparison of expectations and actual performance. Service quality, according to Parasuraman, is comprised of five dimensions: dependability, certainty, responsiveness, empathy, and tangibility. These qualities are important for customers to feel confident in using your product or service. For example, if a customer has an issue with their order, they should be able to reach someone who can resolve their problem quickly and efficiently.
Quality management systems were developed by such people as W. Edwards Deming of Japan, Ikujiro Nonaka and Yuichi Sakawa of Japan, and E. Jerome McCarthy of United States. They proposed statistical methods for measuring quality from the viewpoint of statistics. Today, these quality indicators are used in many industries around the world.
McCarthy's six criteria for quality control include: conformance to specification, good manufacturing process, fitness for purpose, reliability, durability, and accessibility. Conformance to specification means that the product meets the requirements of production standards. Good manufacturing process means that materials are sourced from reputable suppliers and that processes are well-controlled during production. Fitness for purpose means that the product provides value for money. Reliability means that the product will function without failure when it is needed. Durability means that the product will last through frequent use. Accessibility means that there are no physical barriers preventing customers from obtaining necessary information about the product.
Although there is no such thing as quality, a good opinion of a product or service cannot be overlooked. Quality contributes to client happiness, which leads to a competitive position Reed et al. Quality and satisfaction are linked, according to research, and various types of customers are tied to the quality dimension.
For example, if you offer two products or services that meet all the requirements of the customer, he will probably choose one over the other based on his personal preference. But if one of them doesn't meet his requirement, he will not buy it from you. In this case, quality is very important because it determines whether you keep the customer's business or not.
Furthermore, high quality products or services are expected by customers, which leads to their satisfaction. For example, if you sell cars, those with higher quality will generally have more options than those with lower quality. The same goes for computers or air conditioners. These are just some examples; there are many more products and services in today's market. The point is that they should be of high quality or people won't buy them.
Now, back to our car example. If a customer buys a low-quality car, he will most likely be disappointed later when he needs repair work done on it. He might think that you sold him a junk car and that you're not offering good service.
According to Juran, quality implies that a product satisfies the demands of the consumer, resulting in customer satisfaction, and quality also includes all of the actions that a firm undertakes to guarantee that the product meets the needs of the customer. Quality management is therefore the process of designing, making, and maintaining products that satisfy these demands and requirements.
For example, consider milk. Milk is a product that satisfies many different customer demands, such as nutrition, hygiene, and taste. To meet these demands, the milk producer selects certain characteristics of milk (i.e., quality factors) that will determine how the product is designed, made, and maintained. These qualities include protein content, fat content, and carbohydrate content for nutrition; bacterial count for hygiene; and acidity, sweetness, and color for taste. The producer then takes measures to ensure that these qualities are preserved or increased during processing and storage.
These actions are called "quality controls." For example, to control the acidity of milk, manufacturers test samples of raw milk before it is processed into powder form. If the sample tests high in acid, then additives are used to reduce the acidity before grinding. Otherwise, the powder would be considered "off-grade" and not sold as milk powder.
In conclusion, quality means the performance of a product compared with its specifications or claims.