Furthermore, keep in mind that there is self-serving bias, in which individuals attribute positive interactions to their own character and negative interactions to external factors, and fundamental attribution error, in which an individual assigns blame or the cause of something to the person themselves without considering other factors. Combining these two biases can lead to attribution errors that are self-serving.
For example, if someone denies credit for a success but will take all responsibility for a failure, this shows that they are more willing to accept responsibility for failures than successes. This is called "attribution bias" and it is common among people with ADHD.
Those with ADHD often focus on what they did to cause an outcome, rather than who caused the outcome. For example, if someone with ADHD fails at something new, they might think about how they could have done things differently to fail less. But if someone with ADHD succeeds at something new, they might forget why they succeeded and just assume it was because they were smart or talented. They would be wrong both times since causes can be outside of our control.
It's important to remember that everyone makes attribution errors to some degree, but those with ADHD tend to make more of them due to the reasons listed above.
The self-serving bias occurs when we credit favorable occurrences and accomplishments to our own character or activities while attributing poor outcomes to external forces unrelated to our character. Self-serving bias is a widespread cognitive bias that has piqued the interest of academics all around the world for decades.
How did researchers discover this bias? In a nutshell, it all started in 1973 when Edward L. Thorndike published an article titled "A Theory of Personality Based on Response Time". In this article, he proposed a new theory called the "Reactive Theory of Personality", which states that our traits are determined by the behaviors that are most useful in dealing with our environment. He also suggested that these reactive traits can either be positive (such as ambition) or negative (such as aggression).
Two years later, in 1975, George Kelly added to this theory by proposing the idea that people differ in how much control they think they have over their environments-i.e., some people believe they have more control over their lives than others. This idea is known as the "Personal Control Model" and it is considered one of the first theories to explain why some people succeed in life while others fail.
In 1980, Martin Seligman published his work on "Learned Optimism". In this book, he described two experiments that were designed to test whether people who experience many negative events in their lives will eventually develop a pessimistic outlook on life.
Attributions are made by people to assist them make sense of the world and to confirm trends. Some people, in order to bolster their self-esteem, ascribe their triumphs to internal reasons and their failures to external factors, a practice known as the self-serving bias. Research has shown that this tendency is widespread and exists across a variety of cultures and disciplines.
The self-serving bias has been observed in success and failure situations, during social interactions and in judgments about oneself and others. It has been found to exist among psychologists, students, businesspeople and even medical patients who were asked why they engaged in certain behaviors.
People tend to explain their successes as due to talent or hard work, while assigning responsibility for their failures to external factors such as bad luck or lack of opportunity. This attribution pattern has been referred to as "self-serving" because it serves to maintain an individual's sense of self-worth. People who exhibit this tendency believe that they deserve their successes and that whatever good things come their way are due to their own merits rather than luck or chance. They also believe that they do not deserve any negative consequences, such as failure, because these things are due to some other factor outside of themselves.
For example, someone may believe that he or she deserves to get a job but was not selected for an interview because they did not apply enough times.
Self-interested bias is natural and serves a function. However, refusing to accept responsibility for unfavorable occurrences on a frequent basis can be detrimental to learning processes and relationships. Self-interested bias also prevents us from recognizing our own weaknesses and those of others.
In economics and business, self-interest is the desire for personal gain or advantage. It is the opposite of altruism. Economic theories of morality generally assume that people are self-interested; that is, they will act to maximize their own benefit given the knowledge that this may reduce their ability to help others. In reality, people are often motivated by a combination of self-interest and altruism; by contrast, some theorists argue that only self-interest drives behavior. The concept plays a major role in economic models of society as well as in theories of politics and diplomacy.
In psychology and sociology, self-interest refers to behavior that is intended to enhance one's own welfare without regard to the effects on others. This may occur because someone believes that there is an opportunity to obtain benefits without risking negative consequences, such as loss of reputation or status. For example, if I offer you money for no reason other than to increase my chances of gaining more money in the future, this is clearly self-interested behavior.